Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute asthma and lung cancer.
What happens during breathing?
We breathe in and out over 20,000 times a day. When inhaling, the chest rises and the diaphragm expands downward, creating a partial vacuum in the chest. This vacuum draws the inhaled air into the upper and lower respiratory passages. When exhaling, the lungs and chest return to their initial position and the spent air is expelled from the body via the respiratory passages. Respiration is accurately adjusted to the current metabolic condition - for example, physical rest or activity - by the so-called respiratory centre of the brain.
What is pulmonary emphysema?
Pulmonary emphysema, permanent distension of the small air sacs, is characterized by these small air sacs bursting. There is respiratory distress in all forms of emphysema.
What is Asthma?
Asthma becomes apparent by frequent, spasmodic gasping for air and wheezing. As with chronic bronchitis, the bronchi are inflamed and obstructed with phlegm while the cilia are conglutinated. The respiratory passages also respond to certain stimuli with muscular spasms, often caused by allergens such as pollen or house dust, but also stress and environmental pollution.
What is Bronchitis?
With bronchitis the bronchial mucus membrane is inflamed. If this persists for a lengthy period, it is referred to as chronic bronchitis. Constant coughing, impaired breathing, excess mucus and sputum are typical symptoms.
How can respiratory disorders be obtained?
Some relief for respiratory disorders can often be obtained by eliminating the causes of allergic reactions, such as by avoiding pollen and keeping the home free of dust. It is also strongly recommended to avoid smoking and smokers.